Volume 13, Issue 2 (2023)                   JMBS 2023, 13(2): 1-30 | Back to browse issues page

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Hemmat M H -, Namdar Khojasteh D, Tahmourespour A, Mirzaie-Asl A. Meta-omics, a new approach to recognition of our environment. JMBS 2023; 13 (2) :1-30
URL: http://biot.modares.ac.ir/article-22-47677-en.html
1- Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University of Hamedan, Iran
2- Department of Soil science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran, Tehran, Shahed University , davoodnamdar@gmail.com
3- Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Khorasgan) branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.
4- Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University of Hamedan, Iran.
Abstract:   (840 Views)
The number of microbial cells on the planet is much larger than the stars we know in the galaxies. However, the microbial diversity and their ecological network remain unknown, they have key roles on the Earth's ecosystems. Omics technologies such as metagenomics provide tools for recognizing a large part of these cryptic forms of life accurately, which are much higher than the uncultivated majority. One example is the diversity of the Vampyrellids from protista and micro-eukaryotes. Using meta-omics technologies, it found that the diversity within this one group equals that of the entire kingdom of fungi, and they are found in all corners of nature, from the oceans to terrestrial soils. It is noticeable that they are only one of the seven protista groups. In this article, in addition to introducing Omics technologies, some of big relevant projects and their results have also been discussed covering all of the Earth's environment. Metagenomics is the direct sequencing and characterization of genes and genomes present in complex microbial ecosystems (e.g. metagenomes). Viromics is the research of viral metagenome. In metatranscriptomics the mRNA is being analyzed which is due to its notoriously labile nature in environmental samples, its conservation and analyzing are the main challenges in this omics. Identification and measurement of various proteins that can directly measure microbial activity is performed in metaproteomics. Environmental metabolomics includes the study of low molecular weight metabolites generated from interactions between microorganisms, such as small eukaryotes, plants, animals, predators, abiotic stresses, and other stimulants.
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Article Type: Analytic Review | Subject: Biological system
Received: 2020/11/15 | Accepted: 2021/10/16 | Published: 2023/07/10

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